I. Theoretical Background
(1) The Meaning of Quality Management
Quality Management (QM) - It refers to the management of the overall functions and activities necessary to determine and achieve quality. Its management functions are mainly responsible for the formulation and implementation of quality policies. It is all the activities to determine the quality policy, objectives and functions and to implement all the management functions in the quality system through such aspects as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Various management activities are carried out to make the quality of products stable and upward according to a certain standard. It includes not only the quality inspection at the manufacturing site, but also the comprehensive quality management in non-production departments to improve the quality of business execution.
(2) Quality Management Model
1. Total Quality Management Model
Total Quality Management (TQM or TQC) model was proposed in the United States, developed in Japan, and introduced into China from Japan in 1978. What it brings to China is the change of quality concept and quality management method. For example, to meet user requirements, "head QC" (which is a popular Chinese term for leadership), full participation, the whole process management, using data to speak, starting from education, finally education, PDCA cycle and new and old seven tools. These new concepts and methods can be integrated, rooted and developed in the soil of Chinese enterprises.
However, there are also shortcomings in the TQM model: as a whole, the organization has not yet established a complete and systematic system. That is to say, although the quality management system has been put forward and established, it has not been fully implemented. Especially in terms of organizational structure (institutions and responsibilities).
2.ISO 9001 (GB/T19001) Model
ISO 9001 (GB/T19001) mode. This model has been developed from 1987 edition and 1994 edition to 2000 edition and 2008 edition of ISO 9001 model. The 2000 and 2008 editions fully absorbed the ideas and concepts of TQM, overcome some problems of TQM, and established a complete quality management system based on process.
However, ISO 9001 has its own limitations. For example, the purpose standard of ISO9001 (GB/T19001) is clearly stated: its purpose is to prove that the organization has the ability to provide products steadily that meet customer requirements and applicable laws and regulations. We can understand this as follows: one is to meet customer requirements, and the other is to meet the requirements of applicable laws and regulations. However, it does not involve meeting the requirements of organizations, employees, suppliers and society, which is where its obvious deficiencies lie. But it is undeniable that it has laid a good foundation for the model of Excellence Performance Criteria.
3. Excellent Performance Management Model
Excellent performance model. The so-called excellent performance refers to the continuous creation of value for customers and other relevant parties, the improvement of the overall performance and ability of the organization, and the promotion of sustainable development and success of the organization through comprehensive performance management methods. The model of Excellence Performance Criteria not only absorbs the concept of total quality management, but also takes into account the process-based model of ISO 9001. At the same time, it overcomes the defects of ISO 9001 and is more perfect and scientific.
4. Third-party supervision participation management model
The third-party supervision company participates in the quality management of construction and installation projects, and forms the responsibility management mechanism. Better to promote the quality control of enterprises in the construction process. The disadvantage is that third-party supervision is inadequate and formalism is too much.
2. Common Quality Problems in Installation Works
At present, there are still many problems in the quality control process of construction and installation projects, which make the quality management measures not in place and the quality control is not strict enough. The specific manifestations are as follows:
(1) The quality policy of quality first and customer first has not been implemented.
We are very familiar with the slogan that quality is the first in a century's plan, but in the concrete implementation process, we can not really say that much can be done. More formalism.
(2) The people-oriented and people-centered management system has not been put into practice.
Total quality management is the highest stage of quality management, is the quality management of all staff and the whole process. Construction enterprises have not mobilized the responsibility of every staff from the aspect of systematic quality management, so as to really stimulate every staff member of construction enterprises to care about quality. The active participation of all members is neglected.
(3) unrealistic design of construction organization
Construction organization design is not targeted, and even many construction organization design is just to deal with the bidding review, the real scientific quality management method is not reflected in the construction organization design; or, the real scientific quality management method embodied in the construction organization design is not enough to be implemented in the construction process.
(4) The concept of continuous improvement in process control is weak
The quality control of construction process is only embodied in the specific process, only in the current quality control and management, and can not be further summarized on the basis of drawing lessons from the past and existing quality, so as to continuously improve the construction process.
(5) Lack of third-party quality supervision
At present, the supervision company as a third party is weak in quality supervision, which is basically formalism. It is not possible to form a strong supervisory responsibility system thoroughly. The "three-management, three-control and one-management" of supervision units cannot be fully implemented.
(6) The scientific and standardized quality management system has not yet been established.
There is no strict requirement for quality managers to hold certificates for posting; the scientific quality record analysis system for all data-speaking is not perfect.
3. Reasons for Quality Problems of Installation Engineering
The quality problems of installation and construction projects are manifested in various forms, such as dislocation, inclination, cracking, seepage, insufficient strength, inaccurate cross-section size, material selection, etc. According to the reasons, they can be roughly classified as follows:
(1) Violation of construction and installation procedures
No feasibility study, no investigation and Analysis on the final decision; no certificate design, no drawing construction; arbitrary modification of the design, not according to the drawing construction; the completion of a single project without acceptance of the next process.
(2) Design and calculation problems
Poor design consideration, unreasonable structure, incorrect calculation sketch, too small calculation load, improper setting of settlement joints and expansion joints, etc.
(3) Unqualified materials and products
Such as: paint harmful substances content exceed the standard, screw hardness is not enough, steel physical and mechanical properties are not qualified, cable resistance and insulation of the skin is not up to the standard, installation of metal components are not qualified, cement caking, etc.
(4) Construction and management
Many engineering quality problems are often caused by improper construction and management. For example: unfamiliar with drawings, blind construction; drawings without consultation, hasty construction; without the consent of relevant departments, construction without authorization; not according to the original drawings; not in accordance with the construction specifications; not in accordance with the construction procedures of barbaric construction; construction management is confused; construction scheme is not considered carefully; construction sequence is wrong; construction cycle is too long; There are many specialties in open-pit construction, which are influenced by natural conditions, etc.
(5) Installation and improper use
Because of the limitation of the building structure; without verification and checking calculation, the original building is installed at will, and the use load exceeds the allowable load of the original design; the original load-bearing section is reduced by drilling, drilling and grooving at will.
4. Measures for Quality Management of Installation Engineering
(1) Control of Engineering Quality
The quality of the project is the life of the construction unit, and ensuring the quality of the project is the most essential content of the project.
1. Time limit is the precondition of quality assurance.
It is stipulated in the construction contract and guaranteed by the construction unit to complete the construction task according to the contract time limit. Only by completing the project construction tasks according to the contract time limit and not arbitrarily delaying the time limit, can the project construction quality be implemented step by step according to the schedule plan, and the interests of the construction unit can be guaranteed, and the ideal profits can be obtained. Therefore, the time limit is the premise to guarantee the quality.
2. Establish and improve the quality assurance system
Construction units must establish and improve the quality assurance system, and formulate corresponding measures to ensure the good operation of the quality assurance system. The main managers of the project department should be broad-minded, skilled and versatile, with responsibility, authorization and due diligence. Quality inspectors should have certain professional knowledge and practical operation skills, and be familiar with the key points of quality control of Engineering projects. According to the specific situation of the project construction, the personnel of the project department should be clearly divided into different responsibilities, each of which should be held accountable to the others. At the same time, the necessary operating rules and quality inspection system should be formulated to restrict the behavior of construction personnel. Through establishing procedures and measures such as organization, formulating system, drawing up plans and defining responsibilities, comprehensive quality management should be carried out; the "three-management, three-control and one-management" of supervision units should be thoroughly implemented; and the good operation of quality assurance system should be ensured.
3. Design and construction in strict accordance with construction organization
Before construction, the project management department should compile detailed construction organization design according to the specific situation of the project, construction machinery and labor force plan, so as to make it feasible. In construction, the construction organization design is regarded as a guidance document, which is strictly in accordance with the requirements of construction organization design. The actual progress of the project is compared with the planned progress, so as to solve various problems in the construction process and adjust the construction plan in time. By adjusting and choosing reasonable and effective construction schemes, a quality management team headed by the general engineer of the project, with full-time quality inspectors as the main staff, with quality inspectors and constructors as the backbone, is established. The system of gradual inspection and gradual signature is implemented to eliminate the quality problems of the project in its infancy and ensure the quality and progress of the project construction.
4. Controlling Construction Procedures
Because the quality of process, sub-project or sub-project forms and determines the final quality of the project, and the final quality is one-time and can not be changed. Construction level and influence of construction process, construction technology, construction method, personnel quality, machinery and equipment, construction environment, material access and use, etc., to carry out comprehensive planning and control of quality control. Construction process is a necessary condition for the formation of construction quality. In order to achieve the goal of "prevention first", it is necessary to strengthen the process quality from post-inspection to pre-control. Strictly abide by the process flow, control the quality of process activity conditions, check the effect of process activity, set up reasonable quality control points, and timely grasp the quality dynamics, so that the process quality is always in a benign controlled state.
5. Grasp the Management of Construction Site
A good project manager, organize a strong project department, the ultimate goal is to do a good job in site management of construction projects. In the construction process, we should control the progress and quality of each process, improve the on-site inspection and acceptance procedures, consciously accept the supervision and inspection of supervision, construction units and quality supervision agencies, and ensure the quality of construction and installation. Only by doing a good job of site management and ensuring good quality of the project, can the profit of the construction unit be guaranteed.
6. Controlling Engineering Quality and Grasping Key Links
The key to control the quality of the project is to grasp the key links of manpower, materials, machinery and equipment to further control the quality of the project.
Before the start of the project, according to the specific characteristics of the project, the construction personnel are trained in professional technology, the post responsibility system and incentive mechanism are established, the working conditions are improved, and the enthusiasm of the staff is enhanced. From the purchase of materials, we should master the quality, price and supply ability of materials, check and accept the qualified certificates and test sheets of materials, and strictly control the quality of materials. Reasonable selection of construction machinery and equipment, give full play to the effectiveness of machinery and equipment, achieve a reasonable combination of people and machinery, control the use of machinery and equipment, better control of the quality of the project.
7. Strictly Control the Acceptance and Acceptance of Projects
In the process of construction, construction units should strictly carry out self-inspection in accordance with the procedures; projects that fail to pass the self-inspection shall not be submitted for supervision and acceptance, and shall be reworked by themselves until the quality of the project is qualified. The key parts and sub-projects of the project shall be submitted for inspection in time, and the next working procedure shall not be carried out without supervision approval. Self-inspection shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the acceptance criteria, and the data shall be sorted out in time, and the acceptance shall be strictly controlled to provide conditions for the completion and acceptance of the project.
8. Pay attention to data collection and collation
Engineering data is the true record of engineering installation and construction, and the quality of data collation is directly related to the completion and acceptance of the project. In the process of construction, construction units conscientiously collect and collate information. After the site experience is completed, timely information is formed and reported to the supervision unit. Construction units must establish basic data and technical archives, establish and improve data storage, transfer, transfer and management systems, and classify, register and store all kinds of data. Perfect construction logs, event records, project progress records and professional and technical records, and regularly compile construction records. Work in strict accordance with specifications, regulations, supervision requirements and construction contracts, collect, organize and manage all kinds of information generated in the process of project construction, and provide conditions for project quality inspection, project acceptance and later maintenance and management.
(2) Technical training of labour force in construction
In order to improve the working ability and technical quality of the labor force in construction, and to improve the ability of understanding and map reading, some key specific specifications are implemented by means of technical submission and pre-class meeting. Regular training to reduce the occurrence of quality problems is conducive to improving operational efficiency and quality. Emphasis is laid on the certification of skilled workers, so that they can meet certain requirements through learning professional knowledge, and be able to meet the needs of installation projects. Strengthen ideological education and establish responsibility system and reward and punishment mechanism. Implementing a real-time work system, more work and more gain; coordinating internal contradictions, preventing negative idle work and improving labor efficiency; delimiting the boundaries of tasks and responsibilities, establishing a management system that combines responsibility, power and benefit is conducive to project quality management.
(3) Material management
Material is the material basis of installation products and the element of Engineering entity. It determines the internal quality of the project. Whether the material meets the design and specification requirements will directly affect the quality of the product. The key of material management is to ensure that the applicable goods are supplied to the right place in the right time according to the correct quantity, so as to ensure the smooth implementation of the project. The purchased materials must meet the quality requirements and uses of the project, and the materials entering the site shall be recorded for acceptance. The certificate and inspection report of the materials shall be checked with the materials entering the site. All materials that do not meet the acceptance conditions shall not be used in the site. The qualified materials must be treated with fire protection, rainwater drainage, damage prevention, theft prevention and deterioration prevention. While supervising the use of materials, we should carry out the activities of saving materials, which is conducive to grasping the quality control.
Strengthen learning and improve their own quality. The construction unit is the ultimate undertaking of the installation task, and is the most closely and directly related to the quality of the project. The quality of the construction team is directly related to the quality of the project. Therefore, the construction personnel should strengthen the study of professional knowledge, master the relevant laws, regulations and rules, constantly improve their professional quality, and do a good job in construction project management. Consciously accept inspection, grasp quality control, and build first-class projects.
5. Installation Engineering Examples
This project is located in Wanhangdu Road, Changning District, Shanghai. The renovation project of Huayi Building in East China University of Political Science and Law has a building area of about 5000_. During the construction to the water pipe pressure test, many water seepage; fire alarm system debugging stage, the quality of the line is impassable.
(1) Cause analysis of quality accidents
The construction operation space is too small and difficult; the thread of water pipe joint is not screwed in place; the line joint of fire alarm system is not handled properly; the line pipe is not fixed properly and has fallen off, resulting in the damage of wire insulation layer and short circuit; the construction process is confused.
(2) Quality prevention measures
From the quality prevention of construction procedure, according to the actual situation of the site, appropriate tools are used to operate, and the pipeline is fixed firmly; the quality of a single process must be qualified, without hidden dangers. Special types of work require certification and technical guidance. After the completion of a single process, it is necessary to consciously accept self-inspection to improve the quality of the project; professional quality inspectors do a good job of inspection records and report them to the project department and supervision unit for verification. After qualified, the next process will be carried out.
(3) Management measures
While formulating technical measures and quality control measures, we should also strengthen the inspection and testing of raw materials. In the construction, the construction should be guided strictly according to the requirements of organizational scheme and technical handover. The division of labor is clear and the responsibility is human. Strengthen quality supervision, check regularly and make detailed records, take seriously the quality problems in construction, and take measures to eliminate them. In the construction process, we should strengthen the management, implement the construction organization plan, and provide technical guidance and supervision to the construction process.
According to the above, in order to have a good quality of a project, not a single aspect can be achieved, only the relevant government departments, construction units, project supervision units, construction units each perform their duties, each fulfill its responsibilities, unite, and work together to grasp the quality of the project. Depending on the progress of science and technology and the renewal of technology, the quality education of personnel at all levels should be strengthened, the total quality management should be improved, and the application of new technologies, new materials, new technologies and new equipment should be emphasized so as to realize the control of Engineering quality.